Glossary of Terms under ASSESSMENT
Assessment – It is the way of gathering information of observable performance of the student’s/ teacher’s development and achievement in order to improve teaching and learning.
Example: Students who’ve done something in class might give you feedback about his learning level and getting the result of teacher’s teaching ability.
Reliability – It is about the consistency or stable result of student’s knowledge in a repeatable process.
In short, it is the repeatability of your measurement. A measure is considered reliable if a person’s score on the same test given twice is similar. It is important to remember that reliability is not measured, it is estimated.
Example: It is considered reliable of the person’s score on similar test given twice and getting the same result. If you create a test to your student you should expect that if the student will answer the items correctly, he or she will also get the same correct answer again.
Validity– It measures the accuracy of the results but does not require knowledge or skills that are irrelevant to what is actually being assessed.
Example: Someone could do the same performance repeatedly and get the similar results, but there is no assurance if they are correct. This would be reliable, but not valid.
Fairness- this is to do the assessment fairly or equally having no discrimination. They have all the right to demonstrate their skills and performance for the assessment.
Students are assessed using methods and procedures most appropriate to them.
Example: The teacher has to do the right assessment for his students, who have put in the effort to learn the material.
Summative assessment– It is a formal way of testing the student’s know and do not know in the previously learned of study. It is usually given in the end or after the instruction every week, end of the quarter, during the middle of the year and as final so, you can get the exact grade of the students you assessed.
Example: Giving them weekly test, unit tests, mid-term test, quarterly test, and final test in the end of instruction.
Formative assessment– it is an informal way of assessing student’s performance and not as easy as summative because it has no exact grade unlike in summative.
Example: It’s not easy to give grade for the projects created by the students because it takes consideration of the teacher’s opinion.
Norm- referencing– It is the process of evaluating which allows the comparison of student’s achievement to others on the basis of their ranking within his age group. This will classify students according to its level whether high or low achievers.
Example: Standardized examinations such as the SAT which goal is to rank the set of examinees so that it can make a decision about their opportunity for success in college.
Criterion –referencing– what test takers can do and what they know, not how they compare to other. These results are usually “pass” or “fail” and are used in making decisions about job entry, certification, or licensure.
Example: Taking the teachers board, driving test, medical examination, etc may usually result pass or fail.
Ipsative assessment- It is measuring the previous performance against the prior performance of a person being assessed to determine whether he is doing better than he has before without necessarily promoting competition amongst students to better each other. This having the options and pick the one that is most preferred. This will give them a challenge to do better and to enhance motivation to learn.
Example: It’s like playing computer games. This will give encouragement to beat their previous scores. Likewise in student’s previous grade in school with less effort, motivation or progress may end up with better grade.
Grading– process of giving student score for their performance on their projects. This will show how well a student has learned a subject and where she continues to struggle in the learning.
Formal assessment– this is to know how much a student improved during the instructional period. They have standard way of managing the tests as well as having a formal way of grading.
Example: exams, diagnostic test, cumulative test, periodical test, achievement tests, etc.
Informal assessment– it is measuring the individual performance by just simply observing their behavior without using any formal test or scoring patterns.
Example: Presentation, debate, speech, projects, homework, oral participation and experiment.
Alternative assessment– modern way of assessing which provides students with giving more chance to learn, using assessments to guide future instruction, giving the students with feedback in order to enhance learning, and to emphasize what is important. This can emphasize the combination of writing and speaking skills. In short more authentic and challenging.
Example: ability to present with graphs, diagrams, charts, tables, report experimental results
Traditional assessment- old- fashioned of assessing that usually involves the use of tests, quizzes, and daily homework as the means for grading but does not allow learners to focus on critical reasoning skills .Most of the questions are more on procedural and encourage rote learning.
Example: Multiple choice test
Overall, assessment is a way to know, ensure and validates the means of learning and teaching. Lifelong learning!